It is generally accepted that the world's first metal movable type was invented in Goryeo during the 13th century by Choe Yun-ui. Goryeo documents say that his original name was Samga but, after he decided to make Korea his permanent home, the king bestowed on him the Korean name of Jang Sunnyong.  In 994, Goryeo proposed to Song a joint military attack on Liao, but was declined; previously, in 985, when Song had proposed a joint military attack on Liao, Goryeo had declined. Koryo a feudal state in Korea from 918 to 1392, from which the modern European name for the country is derived. , Tripitaka Koreana (팔만대장경) is a Korean collection of the Tripitaka of approximately 80,000 pages. By 1356 Goryeo regained its lost northern territories. "Technological Parallels between Chinese Yue wares and Korean celadons." Korean independence was re-established under the Joseo…  The alliance with Silla had also proved to be invaluable, thanks to the ability to attack Goguryeo from opposite directions, and both military and logistical aid from Silla. When Liaodong was finally conquered by Wei, cooperation between Wei and Goguryeo fell apart and Goguryeo attacked the western edges of Liaodong, which incited a Wei counterattack in 244.  In 962, Goryeo entered relations with the nascent Song dynasty. The repeated Mongol invasions caused havoc, loss of human lives and famine in Korea. Every October, the Dongmaeng Festival was held.  Jangsu ruled Goguryeo for 79 years until the age of 98, the longest reign in East Asian history.  Their historiographical names were implemented in the Samguk sagi in the 12th century. Technology in Korea took a big step in Goryeo and strong relation with the Song dynasty contributed to this. However, the reliability of the toponyms as linguistic evidence is still in dispute.  Jinul's works are characterized by a thorough analysis and reformulation of the methodologies of Seon study and practice. Although Korean lacquerware of the Goryeo period was highly prized throughout East Asia, fewer than fifteen examples are known to have survived, one of which is this exquisite box in the Museum's collection. Steven Heine, 《Like Cats and Dogs:Contesting the Mu Koan in Zen Buddhism》, OUP USA, 2013. There were five armies in the capital, mostly cavalry that were personally led by the king, numbering approximately 12,500. Its relations with Baekje and Silla were complex and alternated between alliances and enmity.  During the reign of Munjong, the Heishui Mohe and Japan, among many others, attended as well. After this, however, it began a steady decline. Two hunts per year, led by the king himself, maneuvers exercises, hunt-maneuvers and parades were conducted to give the Goguryeo soldier a high level of individual training. A traditional account from the "Annals of Baekje" section in the Samguk sagi says that Soseono was the daughter of Yeon Tabal, a wealthy influential figure in Jolbon and married to Jumong. Gwanggaeto's exploits were recorded on a huge memorial stele erected by his son Jangsu, located in present-day Ji'an on the border between China and North Korea. , Goguryeo developed from a league of various Yemaek tribes to an early state and rapidly expanded its power from their original basin of control in the Hun River drainage. Yeon Namgeon tried to commit suicide, but was seized and treated. Goguryeo was one of the great powers in East Asia, until its defeat by a Silla–Tang alliance in 668 after prolonged exhaustion and internal strife caused by the death of Yeon Gaesomun. , In the winter of 642, King Yeongnyu was apprehensive about Yeon Gaesomun, one of the great nobles of Goguryeo, and plotted with other officials to kill him.  He instituted the era name of Yeongnak or Eternal Rejoicing, affirming that Goguryeo was on equal standing with the dynasties in the Chinese mainland. In spring of 668, Li Ji turned his attention to Goguryeo's northern cities, capturing the important city of Buyeo (扶餘, in modern Nong'an, Jilin). This received heated criticisms from Korean scholars, Goguryeo experts from various countries and also some moderate Chinese scholars. Early expansion might be best explained by ecology; Goguryeo controlled territory in what is currently central and southern Manchuria and northern Korea, which are both very mountainous and lacking in arable land. Thus, dictatorship by his military group was ended, and the scholars who had insisted on peace with Mongolia gained power. The shield was the main protection, which covered most of the soldier's body. The wooden blocks are kept clean by leaving them to dry outside every year. The body is low clay, quartz rich, high potassia and virtually identical in composition to the Chinese Yueh ceramics which scholars hypothesize occasioned the first production of celadon in Korea. In 238, Goguryeo entered into a formal alliance with Wei to destroy the Liaodong commandery.  In the following year, under the pretext of avenging Mokjong, Emperor Shengzong of Liao led an invasion of Goryeo with an army of 400,000 soldiers.  The government recognized and encouraged the teachings of Buddhism and many monasteries and shrines were created during Goguryeo's rule, making Goguryeo the first kingdom in the region to adopt Buddhism. In 1388, General Yi Seong-gye was ordered to use his armies to push the Ming armies out of the Korean peninsula. The name "Goryeo" (Korean: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; MR: Koryŏ), which is the source of the name "Korea", was originally used by Goguryeo (Korean: 고구려; Hanja: 高句麗; MR: Koguryŏ) of the Three Kingdoms of Korea beginning in the early 5th century.  Initially, there were four partially autonomous districts based on the cardinal directions, and a central district led by the monarch; however, in the first century the cardinal districts became centralized and administrated by the central district, and by the end of the 3rd century, they lost all political and military authority to the monarch. As Goguryeo extended its reach into the Liaodong Peninsula, the last Chinese commandery at Lelang was conquered and absorbed by Micheon in 313, bringing the remaining northern part of the Korean peninsula into the fold. , Tension continued through the 12th century and into the 13th century, when the Mongol invasions started.  During its height, Goguryeo was able to mobilize 300,000 troops. The policy of placing cannons and other gunpowder weapons continued well into the Joseon dynasty and by 1410, over 160 Joseon warships had cannons on board. , The expanding Goguryeo kingdom soon entered into direct military contact with the Liaodong Commandery to its west.  Archaeological evidence would support centralized groups of Yemaek tribes in the 2nd century BC, but there is no direct evidence that would suggest these Yemaek groups were known as or would identify themselves as Goguryeo.  Meanwhile, Goryeo tried to establish relations with Song but was ignored, as Song had agreed to the Chanyuan Treaty in 1005.  The rulers of Goryeo, or Haedong, used the titles of emperor and Son of Heaven. 여러분 안녕하세요! To the south of Balhae, Silla controlled the Korean peninsula south of the Taedong River, and Manchuria (present-day northeastern China) was conquered by Balhae. One thing that never changed was Gung's hatred of Silla and his insistence that his subjects always refer to it as the 'nation of the damned.' Not much is known about Goguryeo culture, as many records have been lost. Goguryeo's expansion conflicted with Sui China and increased tensions. Beginning in 1170, the government of Goryeo was de facto controlled by a succession of powerful families from the warrior class, most notably the Choe family, in a military dictatorship akin to a shogunate. The Yuan dynasty demoted the imperial titles of Goryeo and added "chung" (충; 忠), meaning "loyalty", to the temple names of Goryeo kings, beginning with Chungnyeol. The Stele says he came from Buyeo and the Samgungnyusa and Samguk sagi say he came from Eastern Buyeo. Polearms, used against the cavalry and in open order, were mostly spears. A significant historical event of the Goryeo period is the production of the first woodblock edition of the Tripitaka, called the Tripitaka Koreana. But in the mid-14th century the Yuan was beginning to crumble, soon to be replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. , Although Goryeo was founded by the military, its authority was in decline. Eventually, Geumwa's sons became jealous of him, and Jumong was forced to leave Eastern Buyeo. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Like most other early Goryeo monks, he began his studies in Buddhism with the Hwaeom school. , Emperor Taizong prepared another invasion in 649, but died in the summer, possibly due to an illness he contracted during his Korean campaigns. The general trend of Buddhism in the latter half of the Goryeo was a decline due to corruption, and the rise of strong anti-Buddhist political and philosophical sentiment. In spite of its smaller size, it was able to stand up to Liao and Chin, and did not have to buy peace. Military units varied in number from 21,000 to 36,000 soldiers, were located in the provinces, and were led by the governors. Ancient Korean kingdom that occupies land in present-day North Korea, China, Mongolia and Russia. Baekje was founded by Onjo, the third son of Goguryeo's founder Jumong and So Seo-no, at Wiryeseong (present-day southern Seoul).  The military of Goryeo was organized into 5 armies, like an empire, as opposed to 3, like a kingdom. At the annual Dongmaeng Festival, a religious rite was performed for Jumong, ancestors, and gods. Military Commander and Founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, Korea. In addition, Generals Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang. In the dynasty, Korean ceramics and paper, which come down to now, started to be manufactured. Tauris, 2015.  The first metal movable type book was the Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun that was printed in 1234. When they kneel in obeisance, they extend one leg; in this they differ from the Buyeo. The walls were extensive in their length, and they were constructed from huge stone blocks fixed with clay, and even Chinese artillery had difficulty to break through them. Dae Jung-sang and his son Dae Jo-yeong, both former Goguryeo generals, regained most of Goguryeo's northern land after its downfall in 668, established the Kingdom of Jin (진, 震), which was renamed to Balhae after 713. The military ruler of the time, Choe U, insisted on fighting back. Against universal opposition, and in violation of the long-standing Goryeo practice of not invading its neighbors, King U went one step further and insisted on attacking China proper. It was first put under the control of Tang General Xue Rengui, but was later replaced by Bojang due to the negative responses of the Goguryeo people. Pinned along Goguryeo's line of fortifications on the Liao River, a detachment of nine division armies, about 305,000 troops, bypassed the main defensive lines and headed towards the Goguryeo capital of Pyongyang to link up with Sui naval forces, who had reinforcements and supplies. Madhusudan Sakya, 〈Current Perspectives in Buddhism: Buddhism today / issues&global dimensions〉, Cyber Tech Publications, 2011.  Due to the defeats that Goguryeo had suffered at the hands of the Xianbei and Baekje, Sosurim instituted military reforms aimed at preventing such defeats in the future. Anjang was assassinated, and succeeded by his brother Anwon, during whose reign aristocratic factionalism increased. In 667, the Chinese army crossed the Liao River and captured Shin/Xin Fortress (新城, in modern Fushun, Liaoning). Goguryeo , also called Goryeo (고려; 高麗; [ko.ɾjʌ]), was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria. He was the third son of Genghis Khan and succeeded his father in 1229.  In 1018, Liao launched an invasion led by Xiao Paiya, the older brother of Xiao Sunning, with an army of 100,000 soldiers. Surrounded by these commanderies, who were governed by aggressive warlords, Goguryeo moved to improve relations with the newly created dynasty of Cao Wei in China and sent tribute in 220. Besides the walled cities and fortified camps, this active defense system used small units of light cavalry to continuously harass the enemy, de-blockade units and strong reserves, consisting of the best soldiers, to strike hard at the end.  With its victory over Liao, Goryeo was confident in its military ability and no longer worried about a Khitan military threat.  The name "Korea" is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo. To secure political alliances, Taejo married 29 women from prominent hojok families, siring 25 sons and 9 daughters.  For a time, Goryeo and Liao enjoyed an amicable relationship.  During this period, Goguryeo territories included three fourths of the Korean Peninsula, including what is now Seoul, almost all of Manchuria, parts of Inner Mongolia, and parts of Russia. The glaze is an ash glaze with iron colourant, fired in a reduction atmosphere in a modified Chinese-style 'dragon' kiln. The System of Military Activity of Koguryo, Rhee, Song nai (1992) Secondary State Formation: The Case of Koguryo State. Along with Baekje and Silla, Goguryeo was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.  However, this period of relative decadence would nevertheless produce some of Korea's most renowned Seon masters.  Independence was regained during the reign of Gongmin in the mid 14th century, and afterward Generals Choe Yeong and Yi Seong-gye rose to prominence with victories over invading Red Turban armies from the north and Wokou marauders from the south. The name Goryeo (alternatively spelled Koryŏ), a shortened form of Goguryeo (Koguryŏ), was adopted as the official name in the 5th century, and is the origin of the English name "Korea". The archers were defended by axemen. However, the capable defense put up by Ansi's commanding general (whose name is controversial but traditionally is believed to be Yang Manchun) stymied Tang forces and, in late fall, with winter fast approaching and his supplies running low, Emperor Taizong withdrew. In 927, Gyeon Hwon, who had vowed to avenge the last king of Baekje when he founded Later Baekje, sacked the capital of Later Silla, forced the king to commit suicide, and installed a puppet on the throne. He also twice changed the name of his kingdom – to Majin in 904 CE and Taebong in 911 CE – illustrative of his unstable character. , Taejo conquered the Okjeo tribes of what is now northeastern Korea as well as the Dongye and other tribes in Southeastern Manchuria and Northern Korea. Goguryeo was later known as Goryeo (고려, 高麗), from which the modern name Korea is derived. , Goguryeo was traditionally viewed in China as a Korean kingdom, but in modern times, the government of the People's Republic of China began to claim Goguryeo as a part of the Chinese empire rather than an independent Korean kingdom. Jangsu (r. 413–491) ascended to the throne in 413 and moved the capital in 427 to Pyongyang, a more suitable region to grow into a burgeoning metropolitan capital, which led Goguryeo to achieve a high level of cultural and economic prosperity. It effectively made Baekje the weakest player on the Korean Peninsula and gave Silla an important resource and population rich area as a base for expansion. The Tang forces thereafter fought off counterattacks by Yeon Namgeon, and joined forces with and received every possible assistance from the defector Yeon Namsaeng, although they were initially unable to cross the Yalu River due to resistance. However, Wang's unification in 936 was a total unification of the peninsula . Emperor Yang's disastrous defeats in Korea greatly contributed to the collapse of the Sui dynasty. , Mythical beasts and animals were also considered to be sacred in Goguryeo. " The river god chased Yuhwa away to the Ubal River (Korean: 우발수; Hanja: 優渤水) due to her pregnancy, where she met and became the concubine of Geumwa. The dynasty, Korea foundation, 2008 and small objects not all adopted. Agree that Goguryeo was often in military conflict with the Sui and dynasties! 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